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Full text of "North Carolina Symphony Book: Teacher Handbook"




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North Carolina Symphony Book 

TEACHER HANDBOOK 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/northcarolinasy200506nort 



North Carolina Symphony 
Teacher Handbook 
2005-2006 

Table of Contents 

Symphony No. 8 in F Major, Op. 93 Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) 

Movement IV, Finale-Allegro vivace 

Information by 

Monica Keele Jones and Elizabeth Chance from Wake County Schools 1 

Prelude to Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg Richard Wagner (1813-1883) 

Information by 

Beth Yelvington and Lucy Shue from Rowan-Salisbury Schools 22 

New England Triptych William Schuman (1910-1992) 

I. "Be Glad Then, America" 
III. "Chester" 

Information by 

Sharon Allen from Chatham County Schools 41 

Songs: 

"This Land is Your Land" by Woody Guthrie (used with permission from Ludlow Music, Inc)..63 
"Chester" by William Billings 64 

Cover Art by Sarah Pauley, Fuquay-Varina High School class of 2005, and winner of the 
Symphony Prize in the 2005 Wake County Gifts of Gold Competition 

These concerts are made possible by a grant-in-aid from the State of North Carolina 

The following corporations and foundations have made special contributions in support of the North 
Carolina Symphony's Music Education Program classroom materials and actively support the North 

Carolina Symphony's statewide education mission: 



Education Sustainers 
William R. Kenan Jr. Charitable Trust 
John William Pope Foundation 



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GlaxoSmithKiine 
Education Benefactors: 
BB&T SMITHrMNEY 

INSURANCE SERVICES, INC. CltigrOUpJ 

Education Sponsor: The McLean Foundation 

The North Carolina Symphony Teacher Handbook © 2005 by the North Carolina Symphony Society, Inc. Reproduction of this book in 
its entirety is strictly forbidden. Permission is given to duplicate charts, diagrams, scores, puzzles, etc. for classroom use only. 

North Carolina Symphony 
Suzanne Rousso, Director of Education 

4361 Lassiter at North Hills, Suite 105 Raleigh, NC 27609 919-733-2750 x235 
srousso@ncsymphony.org www.ncsymphony.org 

i 



Dear Teachers, 

This has been a year of change for the North Carolina Symphony! We welcomed our new music 
director. Grant Llewellyn, and he is bringing the orchestra to a new artistic high. He is passionate 
about education and attended many of our education concerts in Raleigh this past year. He has been 
very impressed with the preparation of the students and the wonderful support our program receives 
from you, the music specialists. He is planning to conduct some of the education concerts this year, 
so don't be surprised to see him at your concert. We also welcome a new assistant conductor, Ms. 
Carolyn Kuan, to the podium. She comes to us from New York where she has been working with 
the New York City Ballet. You will find some information about her in the student program book. 

We faced another change this year when the administrative offices of the North Carolina Symphony 
moved, after being in the basement of Memorial Auditorium for about 30 years. Those of you who 
have ventured down to our old offices know that the space was not ideal. I am happy to report that 
our new offices in North Hills are lovely, spacious and actually have windows. In addition to the 
new office we also opened a store in North Hills, symphony, which houses our box office and sells 
musical merchandise. Those of you that attend the workshop will be able to visit our kiosk from the 
store; they offer many cool educational items that you will want for your classroom. I hope that you 
will take the time to come visit the store if you plan to be in Raleigh. 

The upcoming year's education concert program is packed with wonderful classics. Beethoven's 
Symphony No. 8, IV. Finale, and Wagner's Prelude to Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg are works 
we all know and love. New England Triptych by William Schuman is a great piece of Americana. 
Based on folk songs by William Billings, the work exudes the spirit of the Revolutionary War and 
the fight against tyranny. Two verses of the song "Chester" will be sung and played, supporting the 
Schuman piece. "This land is your land" by the folk singer Woodie Guthrie, is an excellent song 
and an icon of Americana. We will open each concert by a work from a North Carolina composer 
including the venerable Robert Ward and our own bass trombonist, Terry Mizesko. The strings will 
play one of the wonderful string symphonies of Felix Mendelssohn. The winds, brass and 
percussion as always will surprise you with their instrumental family demos. 

Finally I want to thank this year's writers of the Teacher Handbook: Monica Keele Jones, Elizabeth 
Chance, Lucy Shue, Beth Yelvington and Sharon Allen. They have provided you with great 
information about this year's composers and works as well as terrific lesson plans. Again, without 
them and you, this program would not be possible. As in past years, I am always open to 
suggestions; please feel free to contact me by email srousso@ncsvmphony.org or phone 
919-733-2750 ext. 235. 



All the best! 




Suzanne Rousso, Director of Education 




LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) 

The conductor Hans von Bulow coined the phrase "The Three Bs - Bach, Beethoven and 
Brahms," and what would classical music be without any one of them?" 

Beethoven can be considered both a Classical and a Romantic composer. He's Classical in his 
technique and, like the composer Franz Schubert, set many poems and literary works to music. 
He used the works of German Romantic poets like Goethe and Schiller and many others, 
including Robert Burns. 

His works include: 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, 1 violin concerto, 1 triple concerto 
(piano, violin, cello), 16 string quartets, 32 piano sonata, 10 violin-piano sonatas, 5 cello- 
piano sonatas, 2 masses, many other works including chamber music, incidental music, 
overtures, variations, songs, dances and other piano pieces. 



BACKGROUND 

Beethoven was born December 16, 1770 in Bonn, Germany. His Flemish father, Johann van 
Beethoven (1740-1792), married his German mother, Magdalena Keverich (1744-1787). Their 
marriage got off to a rocky start. Grandpa Ludwig supported the young family until they 
became financially stable only because they named baby Ludwig after him. Young Ludwig's 
father and grandfather were both court musicians in Bonn. His father taught him to play the 
piano when he was only four years-old. His father was a terrible teacher who drank a lot and 
was abusive. 

By age eight, his father was charging admission to hear the talented Ludwig perform in their 
home. The Prince of Bonn hired a new court organist, Christian Gottlob Neefe, who heard 
Ludwig play at the age of twelve and in turn gave him free music lessons and mentored him. 
Neefe helped get some of Beethoven's music published and was instrumental in getting 
Beethoven his first position as a court organist when he was only fourteen. 

At the age of 18, the Prince of Bonn sent Beethoven to Austria to show him off in the music 
center of Europe, Vienna. There he played for Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Ludwig had hoped 
to study with Mozart but his mother became ill and he returned to Bonn to be by her side. Both 
his mother and his sister died upon his return. This caused his father's drinking to become 
worse, and he lost his job. Ludwig legally became the head of the household, caring for his two 
younger brothers as well as his father. 

THE TIMES 

Beethoven grew up during the "Age of Enlightenment" when things were changing all over 
Europe. This period began with a gradual revolution against religion, formality, privilege and 



authority. Those in the arts began to show a real interest in learning new ideas focusing on 
science, nature, beauty, honesty, common sense, humanity, naturalness, and universal 
education. This was the first time that rich and poor were moving towards equality. The 
literary movement in Germany was called Sturm und Drang ("storm and stress"). Authors used 
their prose to convey clarity and good taste, to offer images of nature, conveying the "language 
of man." The music of this time was not bound by nationalistic boundaries. It offered universal 
appeal, and was entertaining, expressive and free from the technical complications of earlier 
times. 

THE EARLY PERIOD 

Important pieces from this period include: Symphony No. 1 in C major, Op. 21 (1800), 
Symphony No. 2 in D major, Op. 36 (1801-2), the first six string quartets Op. 18 1-6, the first 
two piano concertos, about a dozen piano sonatas including the famous "Pathetique. " 
Beethoven's works of this time were greatly influenced by Mozart and Haydn. 

The period between 1792 to 1802 afforded Beethoven another opportunity to visit Vienna. By 
now Mozart had died, but he was offered the opportunity to study with 
the great composer, Franz Josef Haydn. When Beethoven's father died and his two brothers 
joined him in Vienna, he never returned again to Bonn. 

Rather than work for the church or the court as most musicians did at that time, Beethoven 
supported himself by selling his compositions, and by attracting funding from patrons. In 
Vienna, affluent music-lovers paid Beethoven very well for his compositions but he also gained 
fame as a virtuoso pianist. The Viennese loved his technique and his ability to improvise. 
Although he was "at the top of his game," he was clouded by a deep depression. He could not 
forget the harsh treatment from his father as a young child. He kept remembering his father 
locking him in his room to practice, or forcing him to practice in the middle of the night. He 
had many other problems as well. He was constantly falling in love with women who were 
wrong for him, and his brothers and their families were causing him trouble. Then true disaster 
struck when he began losing his hearing, just as he started composing his greatest works. 

THE MIDDLE PERIOD 

During this Heroic Period (1803-1815) Beethoven composed many large works including 
Symphonies Nos, 3-8, his last three piano concertos, his only violin concerto, six string quartets 
(Nos. 7-11), many piano sonatas (including the Moonlight, Waldstein, & Appassionata) and his 
only opera, Fidelio. 

There was a noticeable change in his personality largely due to his continued loss of hearing. 
The caring, compassionate man who once took responsibility for his family suddenly became 
self-absorbed in his own world of problems, and was now known for his terrible manners and 
temper. Much of this stress is heard in his music during this period. His music was different 
from the regular music performed for royal gatherings or parties. Beethoven gained fame for 
his emotional music that conveyed joy and sadness. 

Of all his works, he is today best known for his nine symphonies. Beethoven's symphonies 
were more exciting, used larger orchestras and had more dynamic contrasts than others during 



that time. He often used a musical theme or tune repeatedly, changing it or just using portions 
of it to keep his audience guessing. 

Beethoven's Symphony No. 3 (1803-4) "Eroica" in E-flat Major, Opus 55, was said to be the 
"key work in his musical revolution," according to Robert Greenberg. "It is a metaphor for the 
eternal struggle of the hero against adversity, a struggle with which Beethoven personally 
identified." Because of his admiration for the French people and the general responsible for 
starting the revolution, Beethoven had originally dedicated this symphony to Napoleon. 
However in 1804, after Napoleon made himself Emperor of France, securing his power for 
himself, Beethoven violently deleted the dedication. 

His Symphony No. 4, full of nontraditional rhythms and harmonies, gained far less fame than 
Nos. 3 or 5. 

One of his most famous themes is only 4 notes long : the opening of his famous Symphony 
No. 5 (1807-08). This symphony shows off Beethoven's ability to develop a motif, and displays 
his rhythmic style. A recording of his Symphony No. 5 was sent up with the space probe 
Voyager 2. The 5th was written simultaneously with his Symphony No. 6, Beethoven sketching 
them in a manuscript now known as the "Petter Sketchbook." 

He loved nature and being at his peaceful country home. While still able to hear, he would 
often write down different sounds from the forest. His Symphony No. 6 (1808), the "Pastoral" 
Symphony, created a musical story or picture. This was not programmatic music like 
Prokofiev's Peter & the Wolf. The listeners must use their imaginations. With this symphony, 
Beethoven shared the only truly peaceful time in his life. His hearing had been failing for a 
number of years, and walks in the countryside were his only joy. He gave the symphony five 
movements instead of the usual four, with a descriptive title for each movement: 

Movement I Happy feelings being in the countryside 

Movement II Scene by a brook 

Movement III Gathering of villagers 

Movement IV Thunderstorm 

Movement V Shepherd's song after the storm 

The Egmont Overture was commissioned in 1810 for a play by Goethe. This was a turbulent 
time both in politics (Spain vs. the Netherlands) and religion (Catholics vs. the Protestant.) The 
play Egmont focused on the people of the Netherlands going to battle against the Spanish. 
Spain was ruled by Philip II, a dictator, whose ideas contradicted the Calvinist theology of the 
Charles V, Philip's father. 

In 1812, Beethoven regained fame and fortune with the popularity of "Wellington's Victory," 
his battle symphony. It was inspired by Wellington's defeat of Napoleon's in Spain, and 
premiered at the same concert as his Symphony No. 7. 

Other famous works included the overtures Die Ruinen von Athen (The Ruins of Athens) and 
Konig Stephan (King Stephen )written for the opening of the Budapest Theatre. It is believed to 



have taken him three weeks to write both overtures. Ironically the "Archduke" Trio, with fewer 
instruments, alone took three weeks to compose. The next major works, Symphonies Nos. 7 
and S. were written at the same time, and took about six to seven months to compose. However 
he did not spend all his time writing music. He spent time writing letters, taking warm baths 
and meeting people like the writers Karl August Varnhagen, Christoph Tiedge and Elise von 
der Recke. and the singer Amalie Sebald. 

While a number of his compositions were commissioned, many were written or dedicated to 
those he admired or loved. The Opus 82 songs were dedicated to Princess Kinsky (the 
publishers omitted the dedication on the score to protect her anonymity), the famous "Fur 
Elise" to Therese Malfatti and "An die Hoffnung" to Josephine Deym. In April 1811, 
Beethoven wrote to Goethe, expressing his great admiration for Goethe's writings, and 
promising him a copy of the music for Egmont, which Goethe eventually had performed in 
Weimar in 1814. During the spring of 1811 Beethoven found himself very ill and he went to 
Teplitz to recuperate. 

During the winter of 181 1-12, he completed nine more Irish folksong arrangements and began 
work on his Symphony No. 7. He was in love and he finished nothing else that year except the 
song "An die Geliebte" (To the Beloved), based on an unpublished poem by Joseph Stoll. 
Beethoven was very careful about not disclosing his relationships and omitted the year from the 
manuscript, simply addressing his beloved as "My angel, my all, my self." There are many 
references to Beethoven's loves such as "A" for his beloved "Antonie" and his "Josephine." 
Also both of his brothers were having marital problems at this time. Carl married a lady who 
mismanaged money and was caught stealing, and Johann's wife was equally disgraceful. While 
staying with Johann to help him sort his life out, he started the Symphony No. 8, with the 
intention of writing a piano concerto, but ultimately evolved into a symphony. 



SYMPHONY NO. 8 - is one of the shortest of the nine, and is therefore referred to as the 
"Little" Symphony, lasting about 26 minutes. 

This work was composed when Beethoven was 42, during the summer of 1812. 
His Symphonies No. 7 and 8 were sketched together just as the 5th and 6th, The 5th and 6th 
premiered together, and the Symphonies No. 7th and 8th premiered two months apart. The 7th 
was much larger, but when the composer Czerny remarked that the 8th was much less popular 
than the 7th, Beethoven replied, "That's because it's so much better." 

His relationship with his "beloved" dissolved, but in spite of his grief, he composed a rather 
cheerful piece. This symphony premiered in 1814, during a period when many again admired 
the techniques of the classical age, against which Beethoven had rebelled. This symphony is 
full of melodic, harmonic and rhythmic twists. While it began as a Piano Concerto soon the 
long passages showing off his piano technique disappear from his sketchbook, and a symphony 
began to emerge. Symphony No. 8 is known for its humor, as well as being closer in form and 
style to a Haydn symphony than any of Beethoven's other symphonies. 



1st movement - ALLEGRO VIVACE E CON BRIO 

In the first movement, Beethoven shows his unconventional style in the strange movement of 
the chords (use of the subdominant of the subdominant rather then the standard use of dominant 
of the dominant). The opening phrases form a complete melody, which is unusual for 
Beethoven. It is in F Major, and in 3 A time. It is written in sonata form, with a very long coda. 
Antony Hopkins notes that the movement reaches its climax not during the development 
section, but at the beginning of the recapitulation. The last bars of the development form a huge 
crescendo, and the bars are marked j^(fortississimo) which is a rare dynamic marking for 
Beethoven. 

2nd movement -ALLEGRETTO SCHERZANDO This movement was written for 
Beethoven's friend, Johann Malzel, who invented the metronome. Near the end of the 
movement the music suggests that this marvelous new instrument has broken down. Marking it 
scherzando makes it much faster tempo than a second movement is expected to be. Typically 
the second movement of a symphony is the slow movement. This movement, like Haydn's 
"Clock" Symphony, imitated the "machine that created rhythm. It is the wittiest of them all and 
also includes a five-note scale played five times (mm. 36-39 and mm. 69-72), cutting across the 
duple rhythm of the underlying pulse, and further dislocating the rhythm with syncopation. 

3rd movement - TEMPO DI MENUETTO This movement bears an obvious resemblance to a 
Haydn minuet. The style of this minuet form, is different from conventional 18th century 
dance forms, consisting of "thumping" accents. Like most minuets, though, it is written in 
ternary form, with a contrasting trio section with horn and clarinet solos. 

4 th movement- E IN ALE ALLEGRO VIVACE The tempo marking indicates a very fast 
tempo. It is written in a sonata form which is unusual for the last movement of a symphony. 
The opening material reappears again and again in a variety of keys, used different ways. 

This movement imitates the first movement, in that before moving to the second subject, it 
moves to what seems like the wrong key, then to the expected key (in the exposition: dominant, 
recapitulation: tonic). Beethoven was said to have "held his horses back for three movements, 
and then let them go in a merry rush of the rondo-like tune that seems to come to a close on a 
normal dominant C when it suddenly jerked up to C-sharp, only to have the unexpected note 
drop away as quickly as it had arrived. The same thing happens at the recapitulation, and 
though the bubbling high spirits leave us little time to worry about details, the sheer 
obtrusiveness of that note lingers in the ear, demanding consideration. The questions are 
answered in the immense coda, where the same obtrusive note returns with harmonic 
consequences, generating new and distant tonal diversion that must be worked out before we 
can return pace, Beethoven's wit leaves us invigorated but breathless." - Steven Ledbetter.This 
last movement contains octave displacements (covering a full five octaves near the end of the 
finale) and improbable continuations and interruptions, such as the sudden unison fortissimos. 
The coda has a strikingly loud C-sharp that interrupts the main theme, this time leading the 
listener to the first subject theme in F-sharp minor, very far removed from F Major. Beethoven 
ends his colossal coda with much of his thematic material heard this time in F Major, perhaps 
needing reestablishment after his distant journey to F-sharp minor. 



THE LATE PERIOD 

This period began around 1816. These works were very intellectual and highly expressive. 
They include: the Symphony No. 9y "Choral, " Missa Solemnis, the last six string quartets and 
the last five piano sonatas. 

Beethoven was in his forties and had much more than a minor mid-life crisis. His hearing was 
almost completely gone, driving him to contemplate suicide. He realized he would probably 
never marry, he was not composing as much as before and his health was failing. He returned 
to Vienna, extremely depressed. His lifelong friends, the Brentanos, left for Frankfurt; he had a 
dispute with his brother, Johann and his brother Carl was sick, needing money. Prince Kinsky, 
who promised Beethoven some money, died in a riding accident without following through 
with his promise of lifetime monetary support. Beethoven's publishers wrote asking him to 
revise the last nine songs he had sent, infuriating him. He was no longer a star in the music 
world's eyes and his relationship with his nephew, Karl, who he was raising, was deteriorating. 

His absorption in his work overcame his despair. The choral setting of Schiller's Ode "An die 
Freude" (To Joy) championing the brotherhood of humanity was a huge success. He started a 
Tagebuch, a diary of sorts, which he continued using until 1818. It contained notes, quotations 
from literature, comments about practical, musical and philosophical matters, personal prayers 
and advice to himself. 

Beethoven lived to be 57 years old. His death is attributed to cirrhosis of the liver (which was 
the 19th century diagnosis, but now modern investigators believe the cause was lupus, an 
unknown disease at that time.) 

TIMELINE 



YEAR 

1770 
B. born 



1771 
1772 
1773 

1774 



Beethoven's history 

Boccherini 27, CherubinilO, 
Haydn 38, Mozart 14 



Grandpa Ludwig dies Dec. 24 



Brother Caspar baptized, April 8 
Ludwig begins piano and violin 
lessons from his father 



Comparitive history 

New Bern becomes the permanent 
center of gov't for the Carolina 
Colony 

New Bern becomes capital ofNC 



Boston Tea Party 

The Edenton Tea Party (NC) 



YEAR 

1775 

1776 



Beethoven's history 



Brother Nikolaus baptized, Oct.2 



1778 

1779 

1780 



First known public performance 
as pianist - playing various 
concertos and trios 

Begins studying with Neefe 



1781 



1782 



1785 



First work: Dressier variations 
Paganini born Oct. 27 



Comparitive history 

the ride of Paul Revere - Revolutionary 
War begins. The Wilderness Road carved 
out by Daniel Boone 

Declaration of Independence signed 
One of the first important battles of the 
Am. Revolution in the South took place in 
Feb. 1 776 at Moore Creek Bridge near 
Wilmington. The battle resulted in a 
Patriot victory. April 12, 1 776 more than 
80 delegates form a congress in Halifax. 
The delegates wrote the Halifax resolves, a 
paper recommending independence from 
Britain for the colonies. 



Oct 7 th - a group of Patriots from the 
Piedmont region called the Overmountain 
Men (because they came from a region 
west of the mtns.) drove British troops to 
the top of Kings Mountain, and overcame 
the entire British force. 

In March, British and American forces met 
at Guilford Courthouse in what is now 
Greensboro. British Gen. Cornwallis won 
the battle. Cornwallis surrendered to Gen. 
George Washington on Oct. 19th and in 
that year, the Revolution ends. 

Raleigh is Founded 



Pioneers were building log cabins in what 
is today Yancey, Mitchell, Avery, Madison 
and Buncombe counties. 



YEAR 

1787 

1789 
1790 

1790 
1792 



1794 
1795 

1797 

1801 
1803 
1804 

1805 



Beethoven's history 

He visits Vienna to play for Mozart, 
but mother gets sick and he must 
return to Bonn. She dies July 17 



Comparitive history 



Composes Joseph and Leopold 
Cantatas Haydn visits Bonn 
on his way to London 

Mozart (35) dies, Dec. 5th 
Czerny born, Feb 21 

Rossini born Feb 29 



His music first published 



start of the French Revolution with 
storming of Bastille, 14 July 



Of the 105, 000 African Americans 
living in NC, about 5,000 were free. 



The state ofNC bought 1,000 acres of 
land and laid out a street plan of the new 
capital city. State lawmakers named the 
new city Raleigh in honor of Sir Walter 
Raleigh, the founder of the first colony 
on Roanoke Island. Raleigh becomes 
the state capital. (NC Hist - p. 163) 



UNC-CH opens and is the only 
university in NC and the first state 
university in the US. 



Schubert born, Jan 31 
Donizetti born, Nov. 29 

Prometheus composed 

Berlioz born, Dec. 1 1 

He cancels the dedication to Napoleon 
when he hears that Napoleon proclaimed 
himself Emperor 

1st public performance of the "Eroica" Symphony 
Boccherini (62) dies May 28th 
he composes opera Fidelio 



YEAR 

1807 



1808 
1809 



Beethoven's history 

Fourth Symphony, fourth piano 
concerto performed. Clementi 
visits Vienna and purchases 
publishing rights of recent works 

He completes 5th and 6th symphonies 

Archduke Rudolph, Prince Kinsky and 
Prince Lobkowitz agree to pay 
Beethoven an annuity. 
Mendelssohn born, Feb 3. 



Comparitive history 



1810 



1811 



1812 



1813 
1815 
1816 



Archbishop Rudolph returns to Vienna 
for lessons. Possible marriage to Therese 
Malfatti. Meets the Bretano family. 
Wrote music for Egmont and Goethe songs. 

Chopin born in March and Schumann born 
June 9th. "Archduke" Trio completed. 
Liszt born Oct. 22. Music for King Stephen 
and the Ruins of Athens composed. 
Begins work on the 7th symphony. 

Meets Goethe in Teplitz. Visits brother 
Johann in Linz, where 8th symphony 
completed. Prince Kinsky killed in riding 
accident. Begins his Tagebuch (journal) 

Wagner born May 22 



He is granted custody of nephew Karl in 
preference to the boy's mother, Johanna. 
Karl is sent to boarding school. Prince 
Lobkowitz, to whom he dedicated several 
works, dies Dec 15. Premiere of the 
Barber of Seville by Giocchinno Rossini. 



Napoleon invades Russia but is 
driven back 



Napoleon defeated at Battle of 

Leipzig, Oct. 

Napoleon defeated at Waterloo 

The first water-powered textile 
mill is built in NC 



1823 



the African American Moravian 
group built a new church, St. 
Philip's Moravian Church, in 
It is the oldest African American 
Church in NC 



YEAR Beethoven's history Comparitive history 

1824 Performance of B's 9th Symphony 



1827 Karl departs for military service, Jan 2. 

He is confined to bed with dropsy. Dies 
during thunderstorm at 5:45 pm, March 26 



Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 8 

Movement IV: Allegro vivace 

Call Chart and Listening Map 

0:00 EXPOSITION (mm. 1-90) 

mm. 1-28: First Subject (first subject theme first in violins [m. 1-17]; note the 

striking C-sharp in m. 17 [0: 15], leading us to a repeat of the first subject 
theme) 

0:26 mm. 28-47: Transition (modulates to V; back and forth between woodwinds and 

strings mm. 43-47) 

0:44 mm. 48-90: Second Subject (Beethoven moves abruptly to A-flat using 

chromaticism. The second subject theme is first stated by the first 
violins in A-flat major, which is flat VI/V. In m. 60 [0:55], it is restated 
by the flutes and oboes in C major, which is V) 

1:24 DEVELOPMENT (mm. 91-161): begins with sparse strings playing on the opening 

triplet motive. 

1:30 mm. 98: Restatement of First Subject (Note the humor here, because as it is 

typical to repeat the exposition in sonata form. Beethoven leads us to 
believe he is doing this, but in fact, he begins the development instead.) 

1:35 m. 104: Begins to modulate (see the F sharp in the first violins). Beethoven 

touches various key areas throughout the development. For instance, 
note m. 152 (2:19), where we have the beginning of the first subject 
theme in A Major. 

2:28 RECAPITULATION (mm. 162-266) 

mm. 162-189: First Subject (in the violins; just like in the exposition, note the 
striking C-sharp in m. 178 [2:44]) 

2:54 mm. 189-224: Transition (stays in I) 



10 



3:26 mm. 225-266: Second Subject (theme first stated by the first violins in D-flat 

major, which is flat VI/I; at m. 236 [3:38] it is restated by the flutes, 
clarinets, and bassoons in F major, which is I) 

4:06 CODA (mm. 267-502) THIS IS LONGER THAN THE EXPOSITION. While long 

codas are not unusual for Beethoven, this is exceptionally long, even for 
him. 

4:11 m. 274: Statement of the first subject by violins in B-flat major, which is IV 

4:19 m. 280: Begins what seems like more developmental material, including bits of 

the first subject in D major at m. 345 [5:21] and then in F major at m. 
355 [5:30]. 

5:45 m. 372: It appears that Beethoven is presenting a second recapitulation, but 

Beethoven takes a very drastic turn, when he turns fortissimo D-flats into 
fortissimo C-sharps — there they are again! — at m. 374, this time using 
them to modulate the first subject theme to F-sharp minor in m. 380 
[5:53]. 

6:04 m. 391-392: Uses octaves again (this time C-naturals) to hammer into an 

impending key, which this time is F major (I) 

6:19 m. 408: Second subject (This time both statements of the second subject theme 

are in F major, unlike the previous times where the second subject theme 
is first heard in a flat submediant. This emphasis on F major may be 
necessary to "ground" things properly, after Beethoven's recent 
rendezvous with F-sharp minor.) 

6:30 m. 420: Second subject repeated in the cellos/basses 

6:48 m. 439: Extended closing cadential gestures based on repetitions of first subject 

motives. 

7:25 m. 480: Antony Hopkins describes these last 22 bars as if Beethoven is saying, 

"T really am going; not another word; no, I insist; don't bother to see me 
out; I'm on my way; yes; time to go now'" (241). 



11 



Did You HEAR About This?????? 

Sound travels as invisible waves of low and high pressure, measured in hertz (vibrations per 

second). Human ears hear 20-20,000 hertz. Animals hear even higher pitched sounds. 

How we hear: 

The outer ear funnels these pressure waves into the inner ear (ear canal). They bounce off the 
eardrum and make it vibrate, hit three other bones (the hammer, stirrup and anvil, the smallest 
bones in our bodies) and move into a snail-shaped area call the cochlea. Fluid in the cochlea 
moves to the row of hair cells, generating nerve signals to the brain. 

Your ears affect your balance - the three small canals inside your ear detect movement by 
sensing changes in the flow of fluids in the ear. The brain then sends nerve signals to the 

body's muscles. 



Can you name someone famous who's experienced deafness? (besides Helen Keller): 

* C.J. Jones - actor. Born to deaf parents. He became deaf at age seven due to spinal 

meningitis. Starred in "A Different World, Sesame Street, and Children of 
A Lesser God." 

*Rush Limbaugh - had sudden deafness due to an inner ear disease. While working as a 
talk show host, he had to use a teleprompter and staff assistance to answer 
calls. His problem eventually resolved with a cochlear implant. 

*Curtis Pride - baseball player, deaf at birth from rubella. He played with the N. Y. Mets, 
Montreal Expos (minors and majors), Detroit Tigers (majors), Atlanta 
Braves, and the Kansas City Royals. 

*Marlee Matlin - actress; starred in TV's Beauty & the Beast, and Children of a 
Lesser God. Author of Deaf Child Crossing , a children's book about 
a friendship between a deaf and a hearing child. 

* Alexander Graham Bell - invented the telephone, he was not deaf, but his mother was. 

He married one of his students who was deaf. 

* William Ellsworth "Dummy" Hoy (1862-1961) - the first deaf Major League baseball player 

By the end of his rookie year, he led the Washington Senators in stolen bases (82). 
In 1889, he threw out 3 Indianapolis base-runners from the outfield. In 1901, 
Hoy hit the 1st grand slam homerun in the newly formed American League. 

*Juliette Low - founder of the Girl Scouts. She'd already lost the hearing in one ear. Rice 
fell in her good ear on the day of her wedding, and the doctor punctured 
her eardrum trying to retrieve it, rendering her almost totally deaf. 



12 



many people Who are deaf use sign language to 
help them communicate. 



Write as many Words as You can uslmg the letters 
in beethoven's name, then practice signing each 
Word. 



1. 


2. 

6. 
8. 


3. 


4. 


6. 


7. 


9 


10. 


11. 

14. 


12. 


13, 


15. 


16. 


17. 
20. 


18. 


19. 


21 


22. 


5t3. 


24. 




Fun Facts About GERMANY 

Location: Central Europe bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea between the Netherlands 
and Denmark 

Population: 83,25 1,851 (est. July 2002) 

Land area: slightly larger than Montana 

Capital: Berlin 

Language: German 

Common Boy Names: Johannes, Sebastian, Kai, Stephan, Michael, Matthias, Oliver 

Common Girl Names: Christine, Katja, Charlotte, Anke, Susanne, Martina, Sabine 

Flag: Three horizontal stripes - black, red and yellow 



13 



BEETHOVEN WORD SEARCH 



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ALLEGRO 

BONN 

CLASSICAL 

COMPOSER 

DEAF 

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HAYDN 

LUDWIG 

MOZART 

NEEFE 

NINE SYMPHONIES 

PASTORAL 



PIANIST 
ROMANTIC 
SONATA 
THEME 

VIENNA 
VIOLINIST 



14 



BEETHOVEN WORD SEARCH 

SOLUTION 



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15 



Symphony No. 8 

Allegro vivace (Finale) 



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16 



Settings of music of Beethoven for Recorder 
By Monica Keele Jones 



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Settings of music of Beethoven for Recorder 
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setting for recorder by Monica Jones 



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18 



Settings of music of Beethoven for Recorder 
By Monica Keele Jones 



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19 



Settings of music of Beethoven for Recorder 
By Monica Keele Jones 



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setting for recorder by Monica Jones 



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Sources: 

Getting to know the world's greatest composers - Ludwig van Beethoven - written and 
illustrated by Mike Venezia , Children's Press, Grollier Publishing, New York, 1996 
ISBN 0-516-04542-3 

The Master Musicians: Beethoven - by Barry Cooper 
Oxford University Press, New York, 2000 
ISBN 0-19-816598-6 

The Book of Classical Music Lists - by Hubert Kupferberg 
Penguin Books, New York, 1985 
ISBN 14 01.1188 3 (pbk. ) 

A History of Western Music, third edition - Claude V. Palisca, Yale University 
W. W. Norton & Company, New York, 1980 
ISBN 0-393-95136-7 

Ludwig van Beethoven - Symphony No. 8 in F major 

by Steven Ledbetter, a member of ProArte's Board of Advisors 

http://www.proarte.org/notes/beethov2-a.htm 

Symphony No. 8 (Beethoven) from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symphonv No. 8 (Beethoven ) 

Symphonies of Beethoven - Robert Greenberg, Ph.D 

University of California at Berkeley 
San Francisco performances 

http://www.teachl2.com/ttc/assets/coursedescriptions/730.asp 

4th grade Social Studies book 

Old & Sold Antiques - Symphony No. 8 in F major, Op. 93 

1935 

http://www.oldandsold.com/articlesQ6/synl7.shtml 

Monica Keele Jones is a general music teacher at Fox Road Elementary in Wake County. She 
thanks God for her husband, LaMonte, and her two children - Victoria, a seventh grader at 
Ligon Middle School and Victor, a fourth grader at Pleasant Union Elemementary. She serves 
as Senior Choir director at First Congregational in Raleigh. 

Elizabeth Chance and husband Ray Chance, are both retired Wake County educators. They are 
the parents of three adult children, and one precious granddaughter. Elizabeth is organist at St. 
Joseph's Catholic Church and works on a part-time basis at Hope Elementary, where she 
volunteered for over a year. 



21 



RICHARD WAGNER (1813-1883) 

His Life 

Wilhelm Richard Wagner was born May 22, 1813 in the city of Leipzig, Germany as the 
ninth child of Karl and Johanna Wagner. Karl, employed as a police chief in the city of 
Leipzig, died suddenly when Wagner was six months old. Johanna married the actor 
Ludwig Geyer in August 1814, and his step-father's theatrical influence paved the way 
for Wagner to become one of the world's most famous opera composers. 

Wagner received a great classical education and had the intention of becoming a 
playwright. He began to study music because he wanted to know how to use music to 
enhance his dramas. At the age of eighteen, he enrolled in Leipzig University to study 

music. 

Following his study at Leipzig University, Wagner enthusiastically began to write his 
own operas. Unlike his predecessors, Wagner wrote his own libretti (words or text) to his 
operas. By the age of 20, Wagner completed his first opera Die Hochzeit (The Wedding), 
although it was not performed until after his death. This same year, he accepted the 
position of choir master of the theatre at Wtirzberg, the first of a several theatrical 
positions he held. 

In 1836 he married actress Minna Planer and they moved to Riga in Latvia, where he 
became the musical director at the local opera house. Their marriage was a rocky one 
from the very beginning. A few weeks after the wedding, Minna ran off with an army 
officer who left her penniless. Wagner took her back but their marriage would bring them 
both three decades of misery. 

The Wagners lived extravagantly and way beyond their means which necessitated many 
moves during their time together. Wagner was plagued by debt his entire life and at one 
point spent time in a debtor's prison. 

The first move came in 1839 when, after accumulating large amounts of debts, they were 
forced to flee Riga in the middle of the night and move to Paris, France. They lived there 
for several years where Wagner made a living writing articles and making arrangements 
of operas for other composers. Interestingly enough, Wagner wrote over 100 books and 
articles, most of which can still be found published today. 

After writing his third opera, Rienzi, in 1840, Wagner persuaded the Dresden Court 
Theatre to produce it in 1842. The Wagners moved again, this time to Dresden, Germany, 
where Rienzi was staged somewhat successfully. They stayed in Dresden for six years, 
until Wagner's involvement in a revolutionary coup forced him to leave Germany again 
or be imprisoned. 

For twelve years, he was exiled from Germany. During this time, he began to write his 
masterpiece Der Ring des Nibelungen (better known as The Ring), a group of four operas 
that when performed simultaneously lasts over 15 hours. This mammoth work took 



22 



Wagner over 26 years to complete although he took considerable breaks to write other 
pieces in between. 

In 1861, the political ban against Wagner was lifted, and he moved to Biebrich, Prussia 
and began work on his only comic opera, Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg. Minna finally 
left Wagner for good in 1862, but he supported her until her death in 1866. 

Around 1864, Wagner's luck began to improve when King Ludwig II of Bavaria assumed 
the throne of Bavaria at the age of 18. He also met and began an affair with Cosima von 
Biilow, Franz Liszt's married illegitimate daughter. Eventually, Cosima would divorce 
Hans von Biilow and marry Wagner, but not until she had already bore him two 
illegitimate children while married to von Biilow. 

King Ludwig II admired Wagner's work so much that he settled all of Wagner's debts 
and became a supporter of Wagner for the rest of his life. The King eventually paid the 
majority of the expenses for Wagner's opera house in the city of Bayreuth, built 
especially for performances of The Ring. This opera house still stands, along with the 
home King Ludwig II built for the Wagners. Wagner's descendants still live in this house 
today. 

When the opera house in Bayreuth opened in 1876 with the premiere of The Ring cycle, 
there was an incredible audience of famous composers of the day there to see its 
premiere — Anton Bruckner, Edvard Grieg, Peter Tchaikovsky, and Franz Liszt. 
Tchaikovsky said of the first Bayreuth Opera Festival, "Something has taken place at 
Bayreuth which our grandchildren and their children will still remember." 

Artistically, the festival was a huge success, but financially it was a disaster. Wagner 
abandoned the festival the next year and traveled to London to conduct a series of 
concerts to make up the deficit. 

Upon completing the opera Parsifal in January 1882, Wagner planned a second Bayreuth 
Opera Festival. This time, the festival was a huge success, though Wagner's health was 
failing. A series of angina attacks had plagued him and he was extremely ill. 

After the festival, the family traveled to Venice for the winter. While in Venice, on 
February 13, 1883, Wagner suffered a massive heart attack and died. Cosima, ever 
devoted, is said to have held the lifeless body of Wagner in her arms for over twenty-four 
hours before allowing anyone to carry him away. 



Historic Background - The Meistersingers 

Wagner chose many story lines that stemmed from historic people, places or times. For 
Die Meistersinger von Niirnberg, he consulted the texts and chronicles of late 15 th and 
16 th century German Mastersingers. He had explored this idea before in Tannhauser, an 
opera based on the minnesinger tradition. 



23 



Both Minnesinger and Meistersinger were German lyric poets and songwriters. The 
Minnesang tradition of songs idealizing courtly love grew in the 12 th to 14 th centuries and 
developed into the traditions of the Meistersinger in the 15 th and 16 th centuries. One of 
the main differences between these two traditions were the social classes of the groups. 
Minnesinger were part of the royal court while Meistersinger were skilled artisans. 

The largest concentration of the Mastersinger (English translation of Meistersinger) 
guilds was in the southeastern German towns. Nuremberg was perhaps the best-known 
town for these guilds and their traditions. One reason for the town's notoriety was Hans 
Sachs (1494-1576). He was a cobbler and guild-master. He was responsible for creating 
over 4,000 master songs along with other types of verses and songs. He also wrote plays 
and was a follower of Martin Luther and the Reformation. 

Master songs were typically in bar form, with the emphasis on the text or verse. 
Mastersingers could create new verses for the same melodies (called Ton.) The form and 
composition of the poetic verse was very important. Many songs were dependent upon 
number of syllables of the lines; rhythm was not considered important. These songs were 
down-to-earth reflections of town life. 

There were three classes of members in the guilds. An apprentice worked and learned 
from a master, in both trade and skill. A journeyman showed growth and promise in his 
skill and began preparing to become a Master. As the guilds flourished, the requirements 
for the Master class evolved. In the early 14' and 15' centuries, they were expected to 
have learned some of the over 100 Minnesinger Tone and create new verses. Later in the 
mid 15 th and 16 th centuries, they had to create at least one new Ton, as well. 

The Mastersinger guilds were regulated by town councils. Major singing competitions 
were held in conjunction with holidays (the feasts of Easter, Christmas, etc.) Each contest 
would begin with free singing open to the public. Only guild members could sing in the 
actual competition. Each singer was judged by three or four markers, who would mark 
each mistake or broken rule. 

Meistersinger guilds prospered into the 16 th century. Many guilds promoted one of two 
religious movements (Luther's Reformation or the Catholic Counter-Reformation). In the 
late 17 th century, the focus of the guilds was traditic 
century, the guilds had disbanded and disappeared. 



late 17 th century, the focus of the guilds was tradition. By the mid 18 th and early 19 th 



Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg 

An opera in three acts 

Libretto and music by Richard Wagner 

Act I 

This story takes place in Nuremberg during the 1500's around the time of Midsummer 
Day (the feast of St. John.) Midsummer's Day is a holiday of the Mastersingers' Guilds 
and a singing contest is a traditional part of the festivities. Walther von Stolzing, a young 
knight, has met and fallen in love with Eva Pogner, the daughter of one of the 



24 



Mastersingers. Eva is to wed the winner of the singing contest. Magdalene, Eva's nurse, 
and her boyfriend David, who is an apprentice to cobbler and poet, Hans Sachs, try to 
coach Walther so he can audition for the Meistersingers. Walther has no experience but 
declares that he can make up both words and song. Walther tries to join the guild with an 
improvised song but is rejected, to the delight of Meistersinger Beckmesser who plans to 
win the contest and marry Eva himself. 

Act II 

After the disappointing events of the Meistersinger audition, Walther and Eva make plans 
to elope. Hans Sachs overhears their plans and decides to try to prevent this because he 
has his own plan to enable the lovers to marry.Things go awry when Beckmesser comes 
to serenade Eva (who turns out to be Magdalene in Eva's clothes.) Sachs delays 
Beckmesser with song. Beckmesser then asks Sachs his opinion of his own song. Sachs 
does not want to stop his work. They decide that Sachs can strike a nail for each mistake 
Beckmesser makes. By the end, Beckmesser is a nervous wreck and Sachs shoes are 
finished. David misunderstands the scene when he sees that Magdalene is the recipient of 
the serenade and attacks Beckmesser. Hans Sachs helps the young lovers, Walther and 
Eva, to stay hidden and encourages them to return to their homes. 

Act III 

On the day of the festivities, Sachs helps Walther to shape his master song. Beckmesser 
finds Walther's notes (in Sach's handwriting) and claims that he caught Sachs wanting to 
marry Eva. Sachs denies it and Beckmesser asks if he can use the verses. Sachs claims 
he did not write the verses and that Beckmesser may use them any way he wants. Later, 
Walther sings his song to Eva at Sachs' prompting. She is elated and Sachs makes David 
a Journeyman in order to witness the "birth" of the song. 

Once at the festivities, Beckmesser begins the contest with his song. He makes such a 
mess of things that he blames Sachs and runs off. Sachs explains that the verses are 
Walther's creation. Walther sings his song and the Mastersingers are so swayed that they 
want to make him a Mastersinger right there. Walther refuses, but Sachs convinces him to 
accept. Of course, he wins the contest and marries Eva. 

Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg - Prelude 

The opera was written and composed between 1845 and 1862. It premiered in Munich in 
1868 and then in New York in 1886. It was scored for 2 flutes, piccolo, 2 oboes, 2 
clarinet, 2 bassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, triangle, cymbals, 
harp, and strings. 

In the midst of Romanticism and heavy reliance on chromaticism, Wagner composes an 
opera that is more traditional in that it is diatonic with conventional harmonies. He 
employs the Meistersinger bar form and some actual Meistersinger melodies throughout 
the opera. When he uses chromatic harmonies, they are innocuous. It is as if the conflict 
between old and new music is found not only in this opera, but also in his life at this time. 
He was able to blend techniques of the past with those of the present. 



25 



Leitmotif 

Wagner includes five themes in the Prelude. These themes are leitmotifs, small melodies, 
which he builds on, develops, and uses to connect to the opera story itself. An interesting 
side note, Wagner never actually called his themes leitmotifs; he used the term 
"Grundthema" (basic idea.) He was also not the first to use these types of themes in his 
work, even though he is the one most often associated with the idea. Carl Maria von 
Weber was probably the first to make notable use of them. Leitmotif was a term used by 
a critic of Weber's music and later by an editor describing Wagner's music. 



Theme 1: the Meistersingers Theme (Key of C Major) 

It sounds as though the guild is meeting and singing together as a large group. 
This is a main theme, to be recalled later. 



i 



p? 



5 



2 



m 



s 



w 



Theme 2: Walther's Love Song (modest chromaticism) 

This very short melody gives the impression of a wistful knight who has found 
his true love. This is a minor theme. 



I 



m 



p w * ■ j ^ 



Theme 3: Guild Banner (Key of C Major) 

Full brass leads the listener on a march with the Meistersinger guild. You can 
envision heralding trumpets calling the guild together. This is a main theme. 



f 



• 1* 



^0. 



m 



0--0 



r r f ff if ff lifeg 



Theme 4: An ode to the art of music and poetry (Key of C Major) 

This theme is derived from the Meistersinger Theme (1). It uses a small part of 
the theme and develops into a new theme, (another minor theme) 



# 



r r_f | f ft rrrr i FrF 



26 



Theme 5: Walther's Prize Song (Key of E Major) 

This is his song with which he wins the contest (a main theme). Wagner moves 
to an unconventional key relation using a "conversation" that modulates to the 
new key. Perhaps this is a statement on Walther's unconventional methods to 
creating his own song (and even Wagner's own methods). 




There are five main sections to the Prelude. The first introduces the listener to all of the 
themes. Next, there is a lively 4-bar bridge using chromaticism to bring us to the key of 
E-Flat Major. In the third section, we hear the apprentices working and making their 
preparations with a development, of sorts, on the Meistersinger theme (1). 



# 



i 



fe 



He 



m 



33E 



S^ 



s 



The recapitulation in the fourth section starts with a statement of the Meistersinger theme 
(1) in the low brass and strings, as if the masters are returning to work. Then Wagner 
brings back all three major themes at once (1, 3, 5)! In order to make the themes work 
together, Wagner varied the rhythm/tempo of each. Theme 1 is in its original rhythm and 
tempo. Theme 3 is rhythmically accelerated, from quarter notes to eighth notes. Theme 5 
is rhythmically slowed (quarter to half). 



STUDENT ACTIVITIES 

Activity 1 - Listening 

Allow the students a "blind" listening to part of the music. Do not share any information 
about the piece or opera yet. Share ideas of what they heard or thought about while the 
music played. This would be a good time to use a circle map. Students could record their 
thoughts, so that they would be able to remember these ideas when discussed. 

In a second listening, explain to the students that the music is from an opera and that it 
tells a story. You could share the actual opera story now or wait and see what kind of 
answers they come up with and compare those ideas to Wagner's story. Then, use a piece 
of paper numbered one through five (with enough space between numbers to write). Tell 
them that you will raise your hand, or give some sort of signal, at certain times while they 
are listening. At the signal, they should jot down ideas of what could be happening in the 
story. The five times you signal students will coincide with the five leitmotifs. This 
activity will begin to prepare students to work with the leitmotifs. 



27 



Activity 2 -Working with Leitmotifs 

After the initial listening, students should become familiar with the leitmotifs that 
Wagner used throughout the Prelude. They should be able to recognize each of the 
themes when they occur. Lyrics have been provided to help students learn each of the 
themes. Some of the leitmotifs have been transposed for ease of singing. You can use the 
accompanying listening map and/or listening shields. Students can work individually or 
in small groups to put the shields in order as they listen. 

Activity 3 - Triple Counterpoint 

To introduce the idea of triple counterpoint, teach the students three of the following 
simple songs. Group 1: "Sandy Land," "Shoo Fly!" and "Skip to My Lou" OR Group 2: 
•"Chatter with the Angels," "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot" and "All Night, All Day." After 
students are very familiar with the songs, divide them into three groups. Sing all three 
songs together as partner songs, demonstrating to students how Wagner combined three 
melodies in the prelude to Die Meister singer. To facilitate this more easily, start with one 
group singing the first song, and add a group(song) with each repetition. Another option 
would be to sing each song individually, and then combine them altogether at the end. 

Activity 4 - Becoming a Meistersinger 

This activity does require some time, but it can be interspersed through other lessons, 
used as an end-class-period activity, or modified to your own needs. 

At the beginning of the lesson, explain to your students that each class is going to become 
a guild. Talk about the three levels of the guild. Explain the requirements of each level. 
You could use the shields in Activity 5 to chart student progress. 

Apprentice : Students must sing any song that they know. They may do this individually, 
but to save time, they may sing in groups or as a whole class (really just to get started). 
The songs do not need to be very long, perhaps just a verse. 

Journeyman : Students create a "song" out of a written poem. The poem should be in bar 
form, because it is easier to sing. You can even use nursery rhymes. They only need to 
sing a verse (or stanza, an EOG term used in reading poetry selections.) They could use 
melodies that are known to them or are improvised. 

Mastersinger : Students write their own short poem and create a melody. Once they are 
able to complete this task, they have become a guild master! Make a big deal out of their 
accomplishment. Award them a "medal" or "trophy" (stickers, special ribbons, 
bookmarks.) You could work with your teachers, and integrate this activity in their 
language arts lessons. Teachers might make suggestions of books that students could read 
or poems to read in class. They could be working on their own poems from the very 
beginning of the activity. 



28 



Activity 5 - Guild Shields 

This activity allows the students to show off their individualism and diversity. They can 
design their own shields. Guild shields and banners are used to show others what their 
guild is all about. Students can include things they like to do, where they are from, 
personal characteristics, etc. Include a writing or small group discussion activity that 
allows students to explain their choices. 

Activity 6 - Drama 

Students can produce their own reenactment of the story. They can use the Prelude as the 
background and the means to move the story along. Students can choose to work as a 
class of in groups. You could use students in all aspects of the production: actors, 
directors, props, publicity, etc. Let them really go for it! Students could also take the 
experience a step further and design their own theater for their production (just as 
Wagner did in Bayreuth to showcase his Ring Cycle. Working as a team allows students 
to find the strengths of their classmate (and themselves). It involves communication, 
cooperation, and compromise; all traits that students at this age will benefit from. 



29 



CALL CHART FOR PRELUDE TO DIE MEISTERSINGER 



Time 

Elapsed 



Description 



Measure #s 



0:00-0:16 



0:16-0:31 



Statement of Theme I 
Meistersinger's Theme 
(oboes, clarinets, violins) 

Strings flourish & build 
to restate Theme I 



1-8 



8-13 



0:31-1:02 



1:02-1:34 



1:34-1:43 



1:43-2:04 



Restatement of Theme I 14-26 

with embellishment 
(oboes, clarinets, violins) 

Walther's Love Theme 27-38 

fugal entrances by the Woodwinds 

m. 27 — entrance by the clarinet 

m.29 — entrance by the oboe 

m. 31 — entrance by the flute 

m. 32 — entrance by the clarinet 

Strings flourish & build for Theme 3 38-41 

(first and second violins) 

Statement of Theme 3 41-48 

Guild Banner 

(all winds — brass and woodwind and the harp) 

Full Brass 



2:04-2:30 

2:30-3:23 

3:23-3:48 
3:48-4:16 



4:16-4:30 



Restatement of Theme 3 49-58 

same instrumentation 

Statement of Theme 4 59-79 

actually a small motif of Theme 1 

(violins) 

Partial Restatement of Theme 4 80-88 

Modulation from C Major to E Major 89-96 

"A conversation between Walther and Eva" 

*Listen for the chromatic down-swoop before 
going into Theme 5 (in the clarinet) 

Statement of Theme 5 97- 1 00 



30 



Walther's Prize Song 
(in the first violin) 

4:30-5:23 Embellishment of Theme 5 101-117 

(cello, clarinet) 

5:23-5:34 Bridge 118-122 

Modulation from A Major to E flat Major 

5:34-6:47 The Apprentices (variation of Theme 1) 122-151 

122-128 Strings and woodwinds alternate 
129-133 All Woodwinds and French Horn 
pickup to 134-137 Strings flourish 
Drops down — then starts building to 
Recapitulation 

6:47-7:05 Recapitulation of Theme I 151-157 

Heard clearly in the trombones 
And cello 

7:05-8:19 Recapitulation of the Three Main Themes 158-187 

at once — creates triple counterpoint! 

No.l Meistersinger's (bassoon, tuba, double bass) 

No. 3 Guild Banner (flute, 1 st and 2 nd horn, violas, second violins) 

No. 5 Prize Song (clarinet, first horn, first violins) 

8:19-8:39 Recapitulation of Theme 3 alone 188-195 

Guild Banner (horn, strings, & timpani) 

8:40-9:25 Broader, slower Theme 3 196-210 

(brass, woodwinds) 

9:25-9:44 Final statement of Theme I 211-217 

(piccolo, horn, trumpet, violins, viola) 

9:44-10:01 THE BIG ENDING 218-223 



31 



THEMES TO SING 



Meistersinger Theme (1) 



4^ 



s 



5 



m 



pa 



r ' "rr | 



Come hear our song! A song of true high qua- li - ty. Take our word 



* 



« J J J i t r r r " Lr i r 



r iij- » 



Do sing a - long! We are the Mas -ter- sing -ers of Nur-em - berg! 



Walther's Love Song (2) 



F - ^ 



#¥ 



^5 



i ^tt « J_ < l tt 'J'J'"i3 j J j- # tt 



Wal-ther falls in love with Ev - a Pog-ner, his heart fi- lis wi-th joy. 



Guild Banner (3) 



» J J J : J I _ — J^ J * J J J J — J I ■ J ^ * J J J J - 



f 



f 



We are the guild who sings for Po-e-try! We are the guild who sings for Ar-tis-try! So that we 



P j J I J r r u\r p 



3=*= 



F 



car - ry our tra - di - tions on or-al - ly, not to men-tion mu - sic - lyL 



Ode to Art and Poetry (4) 



pllPpi^iP 



ft" 



HiJ-julyj j J | J»J J J if * 



Mas ter- sing -er songs are ere - a - ted to be full of art and po-e-try. 



Walther's Prize Song (5) 



ift 



5 



r J J j 



m 



Wal - trier's prize song, it was sung in a com-pe-ti - tion. It helped him 



m 



F~n J J7T7 



j. i L J J J r lm 



win, he got the girl, " and they'd get mar - ried; . a hap-py end - ing! 



32 



04 




Die Meistersinger Word Search 



D N 


B 


R 


N 


R 


S 





A 


I 


Y 


Y 


M 


G 


L 


R T 





G 





A 


E 


R 


P 


L 


X 


E 


V 


I 


T 


A G 


X 


I 


C 


M 


T 


N 


W 


E 


I 


S 


A 


W 


G 


M C 


N 


H 


T 


S 


A 


A 


G 


S 


R 


K 


V 


D 


R 


A Y 


S 





E 


I 


L 


N 


T 


A 


F 


A 


E 


U 


E 


A K 


A 


H 


S 


T 


D 


E 


T 


A 


W 


W 


I 


L 


B 


U E 


C 


F 


H 


N 


R 


A 


M 


I 


E 


G 


L 


D 


M 


J R 


E 


E 


A 


S 





P 


R 


W 


C 


G 


E 


Y 


E 


N 


R 


M 


I 


B 


P 





E 


T 


R 


Y 


I 


G 


R 


F 


R 


N 


B 


A 


Y 


R 


E 


U 


T 


H 


P 


V 


U 


N E 


G 


E 


D 


U 


L 


E 


R 


P 


R 


I 


Z 


G 


N 


G E 


D 


L 


I 


U 


G 


G 


Q 


I 


X 


N 


I 


P 


U 


R F 


I 


T 





M 


T 


I 


E 


L 


W 


S 


G 


E 


G 


I E 


Q 


S 


T 





K 





P 


B 


C 


B 


P 


P 


B 


W N 


J 


Q 


S 





W 


M 


M 


P 


Y 


B 





D 


F 


BAYREUTH 


LUDWIG 








ROMANTIC 


DRAMA 






MEISTERSINGER 


SACHS 




EVA 






NUREMBERG 






SONG 






GERMAN 




OPERA 










TRADITION 


GUILE 






ORCHESTRA 






WAGNER 




LEIPZIG 




] 


POETRY 








WALTHER 




LEITMOTIF 


] 


PRELUDE 

















36 



Die Meistersinger Word Search 

Answer Key 

DN + R + RSOA + + + MG + 

R + + OAERP + + E + I + 

AG + ICMTNWEI + AWG 

M + NHTSAAGSR + VDR 

A+SOEILNTA + AEUE 

+ + + HSTDET + W+ + LB 

+ + C + HNRA+I + + L + M 

+ R + EAS + + R + C + E + E 
O + RMI + POETRYI + R 
+ + RNBAYREUTHP + U 
+ EGEDULERP + + Z+N 

GEDLIUG + + + + + I + + 

RFITOMTIEL + + G + + 
+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 

+ + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 



37 



OPERA UNSCRAMBLE 



TYSRO 
RAM AD 
MEYDOC 

CNTAMRIO 

TALIINOARTD 

NARDG 

CETHORRAS 

NISSERG 

LOOS 

SORCUH 

DERSACN 



33 



m U 



LXI] 



m 



CT 



X3 I (tn 



E^Z 



mm 



rxm 



O □ □ D 

HI 



n i p p 



D 



W F 


ELL 



ir 



Unscramble each of the clue words. 



Take the letters that appear in LJ boxes and unscramble them for the final message. 



KEY 



TYSRO 
RAMAD 
ME Y DOC 
CNTAMRIO 
TALIINOARTD 
NARDG 
.CETHORRAS 
NISSERG 
LOOS 
50RCUH 
DERSACN 



SlXOlRlY 



CPlMffillXY 
RlQlMAlNT.Xn5" 



mraAiDanxuaNiAiu 



G1R1AINID 



OlRlCIHOStaRIAl 



SlIINMBIRIgl 



O 



m m 



D1KIN I OSIRIS 



WIAIG1M ElRj I U| S| E| P 



IE ITMOTI F S 



TO 



HELP 



TELL HIS STORY 



38 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

S. (1989)5 
Company. 



Adler, S. (1989) The study of Orchestration, 2 nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton and 



Columbia Encyclopedia, 6 th Ed. (2003). Richard Wagner. Columbia University Press 
http://education. yahoo. com/reference/encyclopedia/entry?id=49751 

Freeman, J.W. (1984). The Metropolitan Opera: stories of the great operas. New York: 
W.W. Norton and Company. 

Gilder, E. (1993). The dictionary of composers and their music. Avenel, New Jersey: 
Wings Books, Random House. 

Randel, D.M., ed. (1996). The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 

Randel, D.M., ed. (1986). The New Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge, 
Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. 

Stolba, K.M. (1994). The Development of Western Music, 2 nd ed. Madison, Wisconsin: 
WCB Brown and Benchmark. 

Wong, D. (1997).Wagner meistersinger prelude: a musical analysis, www.imedici. 
mcgill.ca/imediciengl/composers/wagner_r die_meistersinger_anal.htm 

Internet Resources 

www.wikipedia.com a free encyclopedia (find almost anything!) 

www.bayreuth.de/ visit Bayreuth and Nuremberg. . .see some sights. . . 
www.nuernberg.de/ be sure to click the UK flag. 

www.hvmnsandcarolsofchristmas.com/Hymns and Carols/Biographies/hans __sachs.htm 

Learn more about the famous Meistersinger Hans Sachs. 

http://www.wagnermuseum.de/ engl/index.html 

Take a trip to the museum. 

http://users.utu.fi/hansalmi/wagner.spml 

Wagner Archive: full of information, pictures, and more! 

http://www.creativequotations.com/ 

Find all types of quotations from Wagner and others. 



39 



hap:/7\v\v\v. geocities.com/Vienna/Strasse/29Q6/singer.html 

A beginner's guide to Die Meistersinger opera. 

http://w3.rz-beiiin.mpg.de/cmp/wagner.htm] Classical music pages on Wagner. 

http://\v\v\v. trell.org/wagner/chrono.html A comparative chronology and timeline. 



Lucy Shue has been a music educator in the Rowan-Salisbury school system for the past 
twelve years. She currently teaches general music at Faith Elementary School and 
Bostian Elementary School, both K-5 schools in Rowan County. In addition to 
elementary school curriculum, she previously taught high school Chorus and Advanced 
Placement Music Theory at East Rowan High School. A graduate of Pfeiffer University, 
with Bachelor of Arts degrees in Music Education K-12 and Church Music, Mrs. Shue 
works to pass the joy of music to the next generation within her schools and within her 
community. With the help of Miss Beth Yelvington and The Robertson Foundation, she 
worked to make the first ever Rowan County Elementary Honors Choral Festival a 
success this past year. She currently holds the position of music director and organist at 
St. Peter's Lutheran Church in Salisbury, NC. Lucy currently resides in Salisbury, NC 
with her husband Mark, and is the proud mother of two-year-old Ian! 

Beth Yelvington received her B.A. in Music Education from Catawba College in 
Salisbury, North Carolina and her M.M. in Music Education from the University of North 
Carolina at Greensboro. She has taught at China Grove Elementary School in the 
Rowan-Salisbury School system for the past eight years. In addition to her teaching, she 
directs the China Grove Elementary Cardinal Chorus, facilitates the Recorder club, co- 
sponsors the Student Council, and teaches private piano lessons. In the past, Miss 
Yelvington has taught children's music and movement classes, class piano, and 
children's choir in the Catawba Community Music Program at Catawba College. She is a 
member of First United Methodist Church in Salisbury, where she sings in the Chancel 
Choir and ring handbells. As of this past school year, she and Mrs. Shue co-chaired the 
annual Rowan County Fifth Grade Honors Choral Festival. 



40 



WILLIAM SCHUMAN (1910-1992) 

His Life 

William Howard Schuman was a twentieth century American composer, educator, and 
administrator. In fact, his influence on music in America as an administrator was so great 
that it seems his contribution as a composer is too often unappreciated. 

William Schuman was born on August 4, 1910 in the Bronx, NY. His parents, Samuel 
and Rachel Schuman, named him for President William Howard Taft, but his family 
called him "Bill." He had one older sister, Audrey. As a young student, he received violin 
lessons but he did not like to practice. His first love, like many children growing up in the 
Bronx, was baseball. 

During junior high, Schuman was transferred to a special public school for gifted 
students. His was interested in pop songs and jazz. While attending a summer camp in 
Maine his interest in drama led him to write and produce his own play. In high school he 
organized and played bass in a successful jazz band, "Billy Schuman and the Alamo 
Society Orchestra." 

Upon graduation from high school he entered New York University in 1928 to study 
business and also worked for an advertising agency while in school. He maintained an 
interest in music by writing pop songs with lyricists and friends, E.B. Marks, Jr. and 
Frank Loesser. 

On April 4, 1930 William Schuman's life changed forever. His sister, Audrey invited him 
to a concert at Carnegie Hall. He reluctantly accompanied her to a performance by the 
New York Philharmonic under the direction of Aurturo Toscanini. Schuman was so 
moved by the experience that the next day he withdrew from business school to pursue 
his interest in classical composition. He is quoted by Sheila Keats in Stereo Review as 
saying, "I've got to be a musician. My life has to be in music." (June 1974:68-77) 
Schuman began studying harmony, counterpoint, and orchestration with private tutors at 
the Juilliard School and in Europe at Salzburg's Mozarteum. During this time he attended 
as many concerts and operas as possible. He earned a B.S. in music education from 
Columbia University in 1935 and later completed studies for his Masters Degree at the 
same institution. In the fall he accepted a teaching position at Sarah Lawerence College 
in Bronxville, New York where he continued teaching for ten years. Shortly after 
beginning his new career as an educator he married Frances Prince in 1936 and their first 
child, Anthony William, was born in 1943. It was during his tenure at the college his 
compositions first received notoriety and he premiered his first symphony. His second 
symphony won a contest judged by Aaron Copland who said, "Schuman is, as far as I'm 
concerned, the musical find of the year. There is nothing puny or miniature about this 
young man's talent."(Modern Music, Mayl938) Copland became a lifelong friend and 
advocate for Schuman. In 1943, Schuman became the first recipient of a Pulitzer Prize for 
music for his cantata, A Free Song. His expertise in business served him well as he also 
served as director of publications for the music publisher G. Shirmer while teaching at 
Sarah Lawrence. 



41 



He left teaching at the age of 35 to become of the youngest men to be named president of 
the prestigious Juilliard School of Music where he remained until 1962. His daughter, 
Andrea Frances, was born during his time at Juilliard. As the president he created the 
now famous Juilliard String Quartet, added a dance department, and initiated important, 
lasting changes in the music curriculum. He also succeeded in convincing the planners of 
the enormous arts performance complex, Lincoln Center, to include the Juilliard School 
as one of its constituent organizations. 

In 1962, William Schuman left Juilliard to become the president of the Lincoln Center for 
the Performing Arts. While at Lincoln Center, he established both the Chamber Music 
Society and the Film Society. Even though he held very demanding administrative 
positions during his career, he never ceased to compose. He wrote music for band, 
orchestra, and voice. He often would rework his compositions for other venues, such as 
transcribing his orchestral compositions for band. 

Schuman suffered a heart attack in 1968 and resigned his position at Lincoln Center in 
January 1969. However, his resignation was definitely not a retirement, as he continued 
to compose and actively participate in various music organizations for twenty more years. 
He worked with the National Educational Television (now PBS), the Naumberg 
Foundation, along with continuing to work with the societies he founded at Lincoln 
Center (Chamber Music and Film). He became an advocate for student composers by 
founding the BMI Student Composer Awards and was the chairman of the judging panel 
for these awards. He was an inspiration for over 350 student composer award winners. He 
maintained a strong interest in their training, accomplishments, and compositions. He was 
later named Chairman Emeritus as he had previously received the honor of the title, 
President Emeritus at both the Juilliard School and Lincoln Center. He received 27 
honorary degrees from various colleges and universities and in 1985 he won his second 
Pulitzer Prize "for more than half a century of contribution to American music as a 
composer and educational leader." Two other noteworthy honors were the National 
Medal of Arts (1987) and the Kennedy Center Honors (1989) "for an extraordinary 
lifetime of contributions to American culture." 

William Schuman was an all-American composer. His contributions range from 
American music education and his leadership in the arts to his uniquely American music 
such as his set of songs called the Mail Order Madrigals. These are songs which are 
settings of texts from the Sears Roebuck catalog. Reflecting on his early years, he would 
later say that baseball was the main focus of his youth. As an adult he combined his love 
for baseball and music by composing the opera, The Mighty Casey and the cantata, Casey 
at the Bat, based on the poem by Ernest L. Thayer. On February 15, 1992, William 
Schuman died of heart failure in a Manhattan hospital. His influence continues in his 
sweeping music educational changes, in young composers he inspired but most of all in 
his musical legacy. 



42 



His Music 

The compositions of William Schuman are varied but particularly rich in orchestral, band 
and choral music. He has been recognized for his mastery of orchestration. His 
arrangement of Charles Ives' organ piece, "Variations on America" is one of his most 
frequently performed works and is more familiar to many audiences than the original 
Ives' composition. 

Much of his music showcases energetic melodies, lively rhythms and his brilliant 
orchestrations. His orchestrations incorporate his manipulation of timbre by creating 
blocks of color by differentiating the sections of the orchestra. Schuman's music can be 
very contrapuntal, but his orchestral music is also characterized by long melodies and 
grand arcs of sound. Schuman's use of complex rhythms may be reflective of his early 
years as a jazz musician. His use of simple rhythmic ostinato, complex rhythmic 
counterpoint and his characteristic cross rhythms make rhythm an important element of 
his music. 

Some of Schuman's best known works include ten symphonies; a concerto for violin; 
"The American Festival Overture;" the ballet, Undertow; his opera and cantata based on 
Casey at the Bat and two pieces based on the music of early American composer William 
Billings, the William Billings Overture and New England Triptych. The latter two pieces 
are examples of his creating new works based on pre-existing music. He would 
frequently rework his own compositions by arranging orchestral pieces for band. 

Schuman's longtime friend and fellow composer, Aaron Copland said of his music: 

". . .In Schuman's pieces you have the feeling that only an American could have 
written them. . . .You hear it in his orchestration, which is full of snap and brilliance. 
You hear it in the kind of American optimism which is at the basis of his music." 

New England triptych 

Movement I: "Be Glad Then, America" 

Movement III: "Chester" 

The New England Triptych was first performed on October 28, 1956 by the Miami 
University Symphony Orchestra under the direction of Andre Kostelanetz who 
commissioned the work. It is based on tunes by early American composer William 
Billings, who is sometimes called the "American Mozart." He was born in Boston in 
1746 and after the death of is father became apprenticed to a tanner. He had no formal 
education but his composing was a result of the early singing school movement in New 
England. He was one of the first song writers to break with tradition and write his own 
lyrics rather than using Psalm settings. Schuman chose three of his melodies to use in 
New England triptych. The word "triptych" comes from Greek and refers to an ancient 
writing tablet of three waxed leaves hinged together. It has come to mean something 
presented or composed in three sections. 



43 



The first movement, "Be Glad Then, America," is a setting celebrating America's bounty. 
Schuman's work contains rich harmonic coloring and elaborate counterpoint of 
intertwined melodic lines. There is dynamic use of the timpani, slightly dissonant string 
passages and powerful horns. He does not quote the melody exactly but excerpts melodic 
passages not in Billings' original sequence. 

The third movement, "Chester," began as a church hymn. The title refers to a place name 
and not a person. This was a common means of naming tunes so they could be assigned 
different lyrics. Such is the case with Chester when the sacred lyrics were later replaced 
with rousing patriotic ones to rally the Continental Army. It was adopted as a marching 
song for the Continental Army and only Yankee Doodle was more popular during the 
war.Schuman begins this movement by directly quoting the original melody, hymn style, 
in the woodwinds. He manipulates the hymn rhythm through diminution and 
augmentation to create a different mood for the tune. He follows this with his original 
melody in the strings and later overlaps Billings' melody with his own. Through his 
manipulation of the orchestral timbres he creates many variances in dynamics. He uses 
the snare drum and cymbals to recall the tune as a marching melody and ends the 
movement with a rousing patriotic flourish. 

(The following passage is copied directly from the score with omissions concerning the 
second movement which will not be heard on this concert.) 

Because of the special nature of the composition, the composer requests 
that the following be printed in the program book and, if this is not possible, 
it be read or paraphrased for the audience. 

William Billings (1746-1800) is a major figure in the history of American music. The 
works of this dynamic composer capture the spirit of sinewy ruggedness, deep religiosity 
and patriotic fervor that we associate with the Revolutionary period. Despite the 
undeniable crudities and technical shortcomings of his music, its appeal even today, is 
forceful and moving. I am not alone among American composers who feel an identity 
with Billings and it is this sense of identity which accounts for my use of his music as a 
point of departure. These pieces do no constitute a "fantasy" on themes by Billings, nor 
"variations" on his themes, but rather a fusion of styles and musical language. 

I. "Be Glad Then, America" 

Billings' text for this anthem includes the following lines: 

"Yea, the Lord will answer 

And say unto his people — behold! 

I will send you corn and wine and oil 

And ye shall be satisfied therewith. 

Be glad then, America, 

Shout and rejoice. 

Fear not O land, 



44 



Be glad and rejoice. 
Hallelujah!" 

A timpani solo begins the short introduction which is developed predominantly in the 
strings. This music is suggestive of the "Hallelujah" heard at the end of the piece. 
Trombones and trumpets begin the main section, a free and varied setting of the words, 
"Be Glad Then, America, Shout and Rejoice." The timpani again solo, leads to a middle 
fugal section stemming from the words "And Ye Shall Be Satisfied." The music gains 
momentum and combined themes lead to a climax There follows a free adaptation of the 
"Hallelujah" music with which Billings concludes his original choral piece and final 
reference to the "Shout and Rejoice" music. 



III. "Chester" 

This music, composed as a church hymn, was subsequently adopted by the Continental 
Army as a marching song and enjoyed great popularity. The orchestral piece derives from 
the spirit both of the hymn and the marching song. The original words, with one of the 
verses especially written for its use by the Continental Army, follow: 

"Let tyrants shake their iron rods, 

And slavery clank her galling chains, 

We fear them not, we trust in God, 

New England's God forever reigns. 

The foe comes on with haughty stride, 

Our troops advance with martial noise 

Their vet'rans flee before our youth 

And gen'rals yield to beardless boys." 



45 



Classroom Activities with the New England triptych 

Dynamics 

Students will describe the dynamic changes in "Be Glad Then, America" through 
movement and art. 

As students listen to the pieces they will describe the dynamics they hear by holding their 
hands close together for soft sections and further apart for loud passages. Student should 
move their hands horizontally rather than vertically to avoid confusion with pitch (high 
and low). By using gradual or sudden movements they can describe the passages that use 
crescendo and decrescendo (gradual dynamic changes) and contrast them with the subito 
(sudden) piano and subito forte in the timpani solo in the middle of the piece. 
After listening, students should discuss the various means Schuman used to manipulate 
dynamics. (Individual instruments varying their intensity, as in the timpani solo or by 
layering instruments to create more volume.) 

Students create flash cards with dynamic symbols on one side and the definition on the 
other. During another listening opportunity they can hold up the cards at the appropriate 
place in the music. 

Call Chart 1 offers dynamic markings from the score but I intended the chart for teacher 
use only as dynamics are relative to the listener. Students should have the general concept 
of where the dynamics change in the piece and whether the change is gradual or sudden. 
(This same lesson can be done with the third movement however I did not include 
dynamics in Call Chart 2) 

Art Activity Students are given drawing paper and crayons then directed to complete a 
free line drawing during the initial listening for that lesson. During the second listening 
they will color in spaces found in their drawing, lighter colors for soft sounds and darker 
colors for louder sounds. 

Timbre 

Students will follow the "Timbre Trail" while listening to "Be Glad Then, America." 
This movement is a good example of Schuman's technique of using the families of the 
orchestra to create distinct blocks of color. Sometimes the instruments are grouped by 
register across family groups to contrast high and low registers. 

Divide the class into four groups to correspond to the families of instruments. I like to 
place the students in the arrangement of the orchestra to prepare them for the concert. 
As they listen to the music, they will stand (or raise hands) whenever they hear their 
section. During the first listening experience, the teacher should act as conductor cueing 
the groups. In subsequent listening experiences students may specify their instruments 
and stand during their part (such as timpani solo in the opening and the interplay between 
the trumpets and the low brass later in the piece). This activity can also be done with 
"Chester" using the information in Call Chart 2. 

Give each student a copy of the "Timbre Trail." You make want to make a transparency 
so they can follow the listening map with you. At each box write the code for the 



46 



instrument family heard. (B-brass, S-strings, W-woodwinds and P-Percussion) The larger 
boxes indicate more than one family should be heard that time. At another time, students 
may expand this lesson by drawing lines out from the boxes to write the names of 
specific instruments. To challenge more advanced students have them create their own 
"Timbre Trail" to describe the timbres in "Chester." 

Rhythm 

Students will manipulate rhythms to create diminution and augmentation of rhythm 
patterns and identify examples of the technique in "Chester." 

Students will create simple eight beat rhythm patterns using quarter notes and half notes. 
The complexity of the patterns should be relative to the grade level. 
Notate some of the patterns for the class to perform. If possible, have them clap or play 
the patterns on classroom instruments with a metronome to maintain a steady beat. 
Show the students how to change the values by halving them (diminution). Perform these 
patterns at the same metronome marking as the first. Discuss the change. 
Follow the same sequence this time doubling the note values (augmentation), 
Students form groups of three. Each group will choose classroom percussion, pitched or 
unpitched to perform their rhythms for the class. They will perform the same pattern in 
three forms: one student will play the original pattern, another will perform the example 
of diminution and the third student will perform the augmented rhythm. Pitched 
instruments such as glockenspiels or metallophones are especially good for the 
augmented patterns because of their ability to sustain the longer sounds. 

Students will listen to "Chester" and note the examples of diminution and augmentation 
in the piece. They can create movements to describe the rhythmic changes. The 
movements should compliment your teaching area. They can be simple body percussion 
or hand movements if space is limited, with locomotor movement if space allows. 

Curriculum Correlations 

Social Studies - The Revolutionary War 

Since Schuman based this work on compositions by 18 th century composer, William 
Billings, the study of this music can compliment the fourth and fifth grade social studies 
curriculum. "Chester" was composed as a church hymn. The words were later changed 
and the song was used by the Continental Army as a marching song. Only the song 
"Yankee Doodle" was more popular. Discuss the time period and important events that 
led to the colonists seeking freedom from England. 

My students are very visually oriented; probably a result of music videos. When they 
listen to music they often want to describe what they hear in terms of a story or pictures. 
The social studies correlation on Call Chart 2 is a result of their reflections after listening 
to "Chester." If you use this lesson, please emphasize that Schuman did not write this as 
programmatic music. These are just "memory hooks" to visualize the piece. I have found 
they also recognize pieces better if they have some phrases to match with rhythms in the 



47 



piece such as "Come - now- time for battle" at the end of the first section and "Fight on 

for liberty fight on fight on!" at the end of the piece. 

As students listen to the piece direct them to write stories or draw pictures of the images 
the music brings to mind for them 



Technology /writing 

William Schuman had a varied career all involving music in some form. Use his life as a 
catalyst for a study of careers in music. Allow students to research various careers in 
music and write about them. Since they are preparing to attend a concert by the North 
Carolina Symphony, a good place to begin their research is on the NCS website 
(www.ncsymphony.org ). Direct them to the link "About Us," follow that link to "People" 
on that page and have them click on "the Staff." This is a list of all the behind-the-scenes 
personnel they will not necessarily see at the concert but who are vital to the symphony 
operation. From this activity you might have them go to a website of an arts organization, 
performing group, or educational institution in your area of North Carolina to explore 
careers in music. I found that if I went to any search engine (I like www.dogpile.com for 
ease of navigation and good links) and type "careers in music," there were many good 
links. One of the best ones for career exploration is at www.menc.org . After researching 
various options, have them write about the one that interests them most. 

Writing/Higher Order Thinking/Music History/Composers 

I have adapted this lesson from materials presented at a workshop on teaching main ideas 
in reading by Dr. George Gonzales. I appreciate his permission to use his materials in this 
lesson and my presentation. 

Give Composers a Hand 

Students use their hands to recall important facts about composers. Assign a question to 

each digit of the right hand. 

thumb - who? 

pointer finger - wrote what? 

long finger - when? 

ring finger - where? 

pinky - why? 

On the thumb they write the composer's name. For symphony preparation I have them 
answer the next question with the name of the piece they will be hearing at the concert. 
I have them write the century in answer to the "when" and the "where" is the composer's 
native country. The "why" question can help them remember any important information 
about the piece, for example in reference to New England Triptych, "to create a new 
piece based on themes by early American composer, William Billings". Sometimes then 
on the palm of the hand I ask them to synthesize the information into two or three 
sentences about the composer. I ask the students to follow this procedure for each 
composer we study in preparation for the performance. I then create questions from the 
information. Some questions come directly from the information on the hand such as 
"which composer wrote music based on the compositions of Williams Billings?" Other 



48 



questions will require the students to use the information they have to deduce a response 
for example "which composer could have traveled via an airplane?" or "Which composer 
might have worn a wig because it was the fashion of the time?" To take the activity to the 
next level, the students divide into teams and create questions for each other based on the 
information they have. 

As they complete a study of each composer, I create a display of their "hands" and title it, 
Give Composers a Hand. I have provided an example of student work and a template of a 
hand. My students enjoy tracing each other's hands for this activity. 

Word Search on William Schuman 

To introduce the word search, I give each student a copy of the word search but no 
pencil. I challenge them to listen as I tell them about the life of the composer and check 
to see if I use all the words on the page. I check their listening skills by reviewing 
afterwards, going over each word and asking its significance in the life of William 
Schuman. I then allow them to do the word search on another lesson to serve as a review. 

Crossword on New England Triptych 

This is a fun way to review instruments, tempo terms, and composer information. 

I may add a bonus question such as, "What is a triptych?" 

Answer: something composed or presented in three parts or sections 



49 



Call Chart 1 
Be Glad Then America 



Time 


Timbre 


Dynamics 


00 


timpani solo 


P 


:15 


sustained bass notes-wwds/strings 
bass clarinet, bassoon, string bass 


P 


:28 


strings-cello melody 


mf>p 


:44 


strings-cello/viola duet 


P 


:58 


strings 


mf 


1:04 


woodwinds and strings 


f 


1:23 


brass and percussion 
horns and timpani added 


ff 


1:31 


brass (trumpets) alternate 
with woodwinds and strings 


ff 


2:00 


antiphonal play between low 
brass(trombones) with trumpets 
and woodwinds 


crescendo 

and 

decrescendo 


2:25 


brass(trumpets/trombones/tuba) 


p<f<ff 


2:30 


brass (horn), strings, timpani 


ff > mp 


2:50 


timpani solo 


P 
subito f 

subito p 


3:03 


strings - fugal section 


p < mf <ff 


3:53 


woodwinds, brass, strings 
interplay between low 
brass/woodwinds and high brass/ 
woodwinds 


ff 


4:34 


strings, brass, woodwinds, 
percussion 


ff 


4:44 


brass, percussion 


ff 


4:49 


woodwinds (piccolo/oboe duet) 


mf 


4:55 


brass - melody transfers from horn 
to trumpet 


ff 


5:08 


full orchestra - woodwinds and 
strings, alternate with brass 
closes with timpani, cymbals, bass 
drum 


fff 



50 



Call Chart 2 
Chester 



Time 


Musical events 


Visualization: 
Social studies 
correlation 


00 


"Chester" melody played in choral form 
by woodwinds 

closes with melody played by bassoon 
followed by a bass clarinet solo 


Everyday life in 1 8 th 
century New England 
Church, small town, 
gardens and farms 


:49 


diminution of "Chester" melody 
(rhythmic values halved) 
brass and strings maintain steady beat 
with melody played by high woodwinds 


Initial rhythm sounds 

like a call to arms 

"Come now, time for 

battle" 

Colonists make hurried 

preparations to revolt. 


1:22 


original Schuman melody played by 
strings 


Preparations continue 

Some colonists waiver 

Some are hesitant to 

revolt 

Turmoil of mixed 

loyalties 


1:34 


fragments of the "Chester" theme returns 
in the brass and woodwinds 


The Continental Army 
forms, prepares for 
battle 


1:54 


augmentation of "Chester" theme 
(rhythmic values doubled) snare drums 
added 


The Continental Army 
marches to war 


2:20 


full orchestra 


The struggle for 

freedom 

"Fight on for 

liberty. . ..fight on, fight 

on fight on!" 



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60 



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61 



Bibliography 

William Schuman : a bio-bibliography/ K. Gary Adams, Westport, Conn: Greenwood 

Press. 1998. 

"Composers of Great Band Works" by Dr. Brian Harris, Director of Bands, McLennan 
Community College, Waco. 

William Schuman by Flora Rheta Schreiber and Vincent Persichetti 

www.williamschuman.org/about/index.htm 

www.schirmer.com/composers/schuman bio.html 

www. sbgmusic.com/html/teacher/reference/composers/schuman. html 

www.dsokids.com/200 l/dos.asp?PageID=465 

www.menc.org 

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia , Sixth Edition Copyright 2003, Columbia 
University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. 

www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/ 



Sharon Allen has taught general music at Siler City Elementary School for the past 24 
years. She holds a bachelor of music and a master of music education from the University 
of North Carolina at Greensboro; she received National Board Certification in 2002 in 
Early-Middle Childhood Music. She was named Siler City Elementary Teacher of the 
Year in 1989-90 and Chatham County teacher of the Year in 1998-99. She is a member 
of the board of directors of the North Carolina Music Educators Association. 
In 2003 she was received the Sarah Belk Gambrell Award for Excellence in Arts 
Education. Sharon lives in Liberty, NC with her husband, David and daughter, Laura who 
is a sixth grader. 

A special thank you to the following people who assisted with this endeavor: Dr. George 
Gonzales for giving permission to use his "Five Important Questions" method of teaching 
main idea; Dr. Brett Nolker at UNCG for his assistance in gathering information on 
William Billings and "Be Glad Then, America;" and the staff at the UNCG School of 
Music Library for their assistance in gathering research. 



62 



This Land Is Your Land 



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64